Углич. Музеи. Достопримечательности.

Углич город музейУглич стоит на высоком берегу Волги, между Калязином и Рыбинском. Население города Углич невелико – примерно 30 тысяч жителей; тем не менее, он хорошо экономически развит, а также является одним из главных туристических пунктов достопримечательности Ярославской области; иногда его и его музеи относят к «Золотому кольцу».

Если верить местным письменным источникам, Углич основал в 937 году посланец князя киевского Ян Плескович, прибывший со своей дружиной, чтобы собрать дань с местного населения. Вскоре город Углич был укреплён крепостными сооружениями. Несколько раз Углич подвергался нападениям, горел, но вскоре восстанавливался. В середине 15 века он был одним из центров двадцатилетней феодальной войны. Помимо собственно городских укреплений – кремля, роль оборонительных крепостей играли монастыри, поставленные на подступах к городу.

Наиболее известное событие в истории Углича произошло в конце 16-го века: 15 мая 1591 года восьмилетний царевич Димитрий, наследник царского престола, был найден мёртвым. Неизвестно, заколол ли он сам себя ножом в припадке эпилептической болезни, или же его убили по приказу его соперника на царство Бориса Годунова; однако произошедшее привело к народному восстанию против стремящегося к власти Годунова и затем, в результате катастрофического состояния экономики государства, вылилось в широкую крестьянскую войну, приведшую к событиям, известным как «смутное время». Сохранилось предание о том, как колокол, возвестивший горожанам о смерти царевича Димитрия, вместе с горожанами подвергся наказанию: его сбросили с колокольни вниз, высекли плетью, вырвали язык и выслали в город Тобольск. Только спустя триста лет ссыльный колокол вернулся назад, и сейчас он находится на почётном месте в музейной экспозиции.

Весь центр города Углич ныне представляет собой архитектурный ансамбль старинных сооружений. Особенное внимание привлекают княжеские палаты на месте бывшего кремля (построены в 1480-х годах) – старейшее здание Углича; здесь жил царевич Димитрий до своей смерти. Поблизости находится храм Димитрия «на крови», построенный на месте гибели царевича, и многие другие уникальные памятники зодчества 17 – 19 веков.

В наши дни в городе Углич устроено много музеев разнообразной тематики, в том числе музей истории водки, музей русских мифов и суеверий, музей кукол. Отдельного упоминания заслуживает музей гидроэнергетики, связанный с современной историей Углича: здесь располагается Угличская ГЭС, входящая в волжский каскад гидроэлектростанций.

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